This is a review of Chapter 2: "Theory and Method".
Messerschmidt gives a structured overview of the three key-terms needed to understand socially defined behaviour and identity: sex, gender and sexuality; male/female, masculinity/femininity (or masculinities/femininities), heterosexual/non-heterosexual (gay, lesbian, bi, etc.). Our biological sex is determined at birth based on genitals, but in daily life we need to assess a person's sex. In this sense, each of us "does" sex:
Moreover, he shows sex intersects with gender and sexuality, and how they differentiate with each other and amongst each other. Similarly to sex, we "do"/perform gender, too (i.e. masculinities/femininities). Gender does or does not match our biological sex. As such, there are effeminate men and masculine women.
Messerschmidt then continues to discuss 'four distinct masculinities and femininities: dominant, dominating, subordinate, and equality' and explains how the incongruence within the sex-gender-heterosexuality structure is view and socially dealt with (pp. 38-39). Even equality masculinities and femininities, who -- as the term implies -- hold egalitarian viewpoints of men and women and maintains his/her relationships in a similar fashion, ultimately disregards the masculine hegemony (man-masculine-heterosexual) over the Other and are thus not complementary to it. They are thus not socially "natural" and will, as of yet, not be perceived as normal in the eyes of society (for now).
Though the relationship with criminality is of lesser concern to my academic interests, this chapter gives several useful insights into sex, gender and sexuality and dominant studies previously published. It is a great starting point for those interested in criminology, naturally, but can also prove useful for students/academics in the fields of literature, (social-)history and sociology.